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Renowned Speakers

Henry M Sobell

Henry M Sobell

University of Rochester USA

John H Miller

John H Miller

Full Professor Victoria University of Wellington Newzealand

Toshiya Senda

Toshiya Senda

Director Structural Biology Research Center High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Japan

Bi-Cheng Wang

Bi-Cheng Wang

Founding Director of SER-CAT USA

Fumio Hirata

Fumio Hirata

Emeritus Professor Ritsumeikan University Japan

Shigeyuki Yokoyama

Shigeyuki Yokoyama

RIKEN Japan

Timothy A Cross

Timothy A Cross

Florida State University & National High Magnetic Field Lab USA

Tilman Schirmer

Tilman Schirmer

University of Basel Switzerland

Structural Biology Meet 2018

About Structural Biology Meet 2018

About Structural Biology Congress

On behalf of the Organizing Committee of Structural Biology 2018, all the researchers, developers, and experts are warmly welcome from the field of Structural Biology to attend 10th International Congress on Structural Biology schedule in the month of October 18-19, 2018 in Helsinki, Finland. We aim to unify all the people indulged in this vast field and share the knowledge, explore and look forward to the new way by integrating new thoughts and customizing the limits of the future technology.

Structural Biology 2018 offers a dais to take an attention to explore, grip and meet with prominent speakers of the field, including both broad and specific subjects. The Structural Biology 2018 will be surrounding the theme Modern Exploration in Structural Biology”.

The Structural Biology 2018 constitutes of Sessions like Keynote Speeches, Oral Presentations, Poster Presentations, Universal Workshops, B2B Meetings, Panel Discussions, Q&A sessions, Industry expert interactions. There are awards for some categories like Best Poster, Best Oral presentation, Young Researcher Forums (YRF), e-Poster presentations, Video presentations by the experts from both Industry & Academic.

International Congress on Structural Biology 2018 invites all interested participants to join us for this venerate event at the elegant destination Helsinki, Finland

WHY TO ATTEND?

International Congress on Structural Biology is amid the World's leading technical Congress. The two days event on Structural Biology will host 60+ Scientific and technical sessions and sub-sessions on leading and latest research transformation in the field of Structural Biology covering the globe. Structural Biology   2018 will comprise of 14 major sessions designed to offer comprehensive sessions that discourse current topics in the field of  Structural Biology.

The attendees can find exclusive sessions and panel discussions on latest innovations in  Structural Biology by:

  • Lectures from renowned speakers

  • Keynote forums by Prominent Professors, Engineers

  • Open Innovation Challenges

  • Poster presentations by Young Researchers

  • Global Networking sessions with 50+ Countries

  • Novel techniques to benefit your research

  • Best platform for Global business and Networking opportunities

  • Meet the editors of refereed journals, Society and Association members across the Globe

  • Excellent platform to showcase the latest innovation and concept in the technical field

Target Audience:-

  • Biochemists

  • Biotechnologists

  • Bioinformatics

  • Cell Biologists

  • Developmental Biologists

  • Geneticists

  • Micro Biologists

  • Molecular Biologists

  • System Biologists

  • Immunologists

  • Biophysicist

  • Structural biologists

  • Bioengineers

  • Nanoengineers

  • Neuro-Biologist

  • Computational Biologist

  • Biomedical Researchers

  • Professors & Academicians

  • Industrialists

  • Students

Sessions & Tracks

Sessions and Tracks 

Track 1: 3D Structure Determination

Biomolecules are very small to see in detail even by most microscopes. The methods that the structural biologists use to determine their structures in general involve the measurements on huge numbers of identical molecules at the same time. Some of the best methods include X-ray crystallography, Cryo-Electron Microscopy and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. Very often scientists use them to study the "native states" of biomolecules. Analytical Techniques are designed for making the qualitative and quantitative calculation. Precision analytical technologies are required to determine product quality and trace level of impurities which may prove to be a risk to human health or the environment. These technologies indulge highly specialized analytical instruments which can only be operated by scientists who have industry application experience.

  • Electrophoresis
  • Gel Chromatography
  • X-Ray Crystallography
  • Electron Microscopy
  • NMR Spectroscopy
  • Immunochemical Techniques For Identification& Estimation Of Macromolecules

Track 2: Computational Approaches in Structural Biology

Computational approaches are a benefits for structural biologyStructure of molecules is determined by experimental methods which is tedious and practical. Computational biology is an interdisciplinary field that develops and applies computational methods to analyze large collections of biological data, such as genetic sequences, cell populations or protein samples, to make new predictions or discover new biology. The computational methods used include analytical methods, mathematical modeling, and simulation. It is a rapidly developing multi-disciplinary field. The systematic achievements of data made possible by genomics & proteomics technologies have created a tremendous gap between available data & their biological interpretation.

Track 3: Hybrid Approaches for Structure Prediction

Structural bioinformatics is specially a practical results for protein structure determination. Structural Bioinformatics is an interdisciplinary field that deals with the three-dimensional structures of biomolecules. It attempts to model and discover the basic principles underlying biological machinery at the molecular level. It is based on the hypothesis that 3D structural information of a biological system is the basic to understanding its mechanism of action and function. Structural bioinformatics combines applications of physical and chemical principles with algorithms from computational science. Major areas protein and nucleic acid 3D structure determination, prediction of protein 3D structure from sequence, protein structure validation protein structure comparison and alignment, protein and nucleic acid structure classification inferring protein function from structure, prediction of protein-ligand interaction, prediction of protein-protein interactions, development of databases.

Track 4: Sequencing

Sequencing meets structural biology is a dedicated track to show how the recently developed methods are used to determine the structure of molecules. This approach proves itself helpful in a more efficient way. Synergistic use of three-dimensional structures and deep sequencing is done to realize the effect of the personalized medicine.  To know the order of nucleotide in small targeted genomic regions or entire genome sequencing method is utilized. Sequencing allows researchers to ask virtually any question related to the genome, transcriptome, or epigenome of an organism as it enables a wide range of application. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) method is different as for how the DNA or RNA samples are placed, and data analysis is done

Track 5: Structural Biology Databases

A biological macromolecule's function is known by the chemical and physical properties of its three‐dimensional (3D) structure. For this one should know the structure of a biomolecule which is very helpful if we want to understand the living systems and diseases. A database is a structured collection of data. In the field of structural biology enormous research is being done and as a result massive data is being produced. In order to pile the data in an organized manner, bioinformatics databases are used. Many databases are created so that the biological data can be stored such as sequence databases, signalling database,  structure database, etc. The Protein database(PDB) which a crystallographic database is used for 3D structural data of larger biomolecules.The advancement in technologies have been reflected in further development of the PDB and in the structural speciality and structural characteristic databases that have also evolved. In the field of structural biology, the mainly used databases are Protein Data Bank (PDB), Electron Microscopy Data Bank, Protein Structure Classification Database (CATH) and Structural Classification of Protein (SCOP).

Track 6: Signalling Biology

Cell signalling is part of any communication process that governs key activities of  cells and coordinates all cell actions. The ability of cells to perceive and correctly respond to their microenvironment is the basis of development, tissue repair, and immunity, as well as normal tissue homeostasis. Errors in signalling interactions and cellular information processing are responsible for diseases such as cancerautoimmunity, and diabetes. By understanding cell signaling, diseases may be treated more effectively and, theoretically, artificial tissues may be createdThe process by which a gene's information is converted into the structures and functions of a cell by a process of producing a biologically functional molecule of either protein or RNA is made.Sophisticated programs of gene expression are extensively observed in biology, for example to trigger developmental pathways, adapt to new food sources, or respond to environmental stimuli. Gene expression can be modulated, from transcription initiation to post translation modification of a protein.

  • Signaling between cells of one organism and multiple organisms

  • Classification

  • Cell signaling in multicellular organisms

  • Receptors for cell motility and differentiation

  • Signaling pathways

  • Intraspecies and interspecies signaling

Track 7: Molecular Modelling and Dynamics

Molecular dynamics(MD) is a computer simulation method for understanding  the physical movements of atoms and molecules. The interaction between atoms and molecules is for a fixed period of time, giving a view of the dynamic evolution of the system. Molecular simulation uses powerful computers to know the interactions between atoms and to understand the properties of materials. Such simulations involve methods that range from very small quantum mechanical calculations on atoms to classical dynamics of large groups of molecules on a timescale of milliseconds or longer.These techniques are used in various fields of drug designcomputational chemistry, materials science and computational biology for knowing macromolecular systems ranging from small to large biological systems. Simplest calculations can be achieved manually, but computers are required to perform molecular modelling of reasonably large sized system. The common feature of molecular modeling methods is the atomistic level description of the molecular systems. This may include treating atoms as the smallest individual unit or explicitly modeling electrons of each atom. 

  • Potentials In Molecular Dynamics

  • Steered Molecular Dynamics

  • Molecular Dynamics Algorithms

  • Incorporating Molecular Dynamics 

  • Design Constraints      

Track 8: Drug Designing

Drug design is an inventive process to find new medication centered on the knowledge of the biological target. It is also known as also known as rational drug design.Drug is most a small molecule that inhibits or activates the function of a biomolecule, which in results into a therapeutic benefit to the patient. Drug design commonly relies on computational techniques. This type of modeling is often mentioned to as computer-aided drug design. Drug design that depends on the knowledge of the 3D structure of the target is known as structure-based drug design. The main methods available for drug design are structure-based drug design and ligand-based drug design.The structure-based drug designing also known as direct drug design involves the three-dimensional structure of a drug target interacting with small molecules is used to guide drug discovery. It represents the idea that one can see exactly how the molecules interact with its target protein. Ligand-based drug design also known as indirect drug design is an approach used in the absence of the receptor 3D information and it relies on knowledge of molecules that bind to the biological target of interest. The most important and widely used tools in ligand-based drug design involve QSAR & pharmacophore modeling 

  • Rational Drug Discovery

  • Computer-Aided Drug Design

  • Drug Targets

  • Types

Track 9: Frontiers in Structural Biology

The main focus of a structural biologist is protein structure determination and drug design. Protein plays an important role in human body. Proteins are one of the most important parts of any biological systems. Living things would not exist without proteins as it is involved in all aspects of living things. Several proteins provide structure to cells; others tend bind to and carry vital molecules all through the body. Some proteins are involved in biochemical reactions in the body which are termed as enzymes. Others are involved in muscle contractions and immunity. Structure determination of proteins has always been a challenging filed. The complex areas in the field include viruses, pathogens, membrane proteins and signalling pathways. Novel progressions are being done in the arenas of nanopatternig and multi scale modelling of cell signalling proteins. Understanding the folding of the amino-acid chain to produce functional proteins is essential for studying cellular systems. A problem in structural bioinformatics is to determine the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of a protein when only a sequence of amino acid residues is given. These methods can be divided into four main classes: (a) first principle methods without database information; (b) first principle methods with database information; (c) fold recognition and threading methods, and (d) comparative modeling methods and sequence alignment strategies.

  • Primary Structure

  • Secondary Structure

  • Tertiary Structure

  • Quaternary Structure

Track 10: Structural Biology in Cancer Research

Major part of research is being carried out in the area of cancer. The main aim is to design and discover novel and effective drugs to cure the disease. Structural biology combined with molecular modelling mainly aims at drug designing. Eventually, many researchers in Structural biology carry out cancer research to extend the exploitation of molecular understanding of biomolecules in the advancement of novel cancer therapies. Cancer immunotherapy is also used which is defined as the response of immune system to reject cancer. Immunotherapies can be a better way of treating cancer. The malignant tumor cells are attacked by stimulating the immune system as these cells are responsible to exploit the fact that cancer cells often have molecules on their surface that can be detected by the tumor-associated antigens (TAAs).

  • Antibody Therapy

  • Cellular Immunotherapy

  • Cytokine Therapy

  • Combinational Immunotherapy

Track 11: Structural Biology Complexity Arenas

Structural biology focuses at atomic level for understanding the biomolecules. Most of the aspects of structural biology are complex. Researchers are proving to be successful in solving these complexities like determination of protein structures, functional annotations and drug designing. Though structures of proteins are solved on a huge scale, the gap between available sequence data and structure data is enormous. Bridging this gap is one of the main challenges. In the current research, some of the most complex areas are protein folding, catching the complication of dynamic nanomachines and signalling networks, understanding the intrinsically disordered proteins.

Track 12: Recent Advances in Structural Biology

Structural biology is one of the developing fields. In the course of time many innovations have taken place. Large number of solved structures have amplified rapidly. The field of drug design and drug discovery has been advanced. Functional annotations are another field where progressions are being seen. Alterations in order to improve the effectiveness of prevailing tools can also be noted. Remarkable advances can be seen in the areas of imaging technologies and advancement of hybrid methods to understand the structure and function of proteins. Structural biology is one of the progressing fields. In the course of time, many developments have been taking place. Huge numbers of solved structures have exaggerated rapidly. The field of drug design and drug discovery has been advanced.

  • Structure Determination

  • Technological Advances In Existing Methods

  • New And Potentially Disruptive Technologies

  • Advances In Drug Design

  • Advances In Tool Development

  • Advances In Imaging Technologies

Track 13: Structural  Virology

Viruses uses a molecular meachanism to invade the host cells to establish an infection and to ensure that the progeny virus particles are released into the environment invading the host’s immune defences. This mechanism is known as Structural Virology. Although viruses are simple as individual with the self –replicating ability but as a group they are exceptionally diverse in strategies and structures .

Track 14: Biomolecules

Biomolecules are molecules that are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms. These non-living molecules are the actual foot-soldiers of the battle of sustenance of life. They range from small molecules such as primary and secondary metabolites and hormones to large macromolecules like proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, lipids etc. Biomolecules are usually involved in the maintenance & metabolic processes of living organisms. These molecules are non-living molecules for battle of sustenance of life. They have a wide range from small molecules like primary & secondary metabolites to Large macromolecules like proteins, lipids, etc. Biomolecules are formed by joining many small units together to form a long chain. This process is called synthesis. These molecules are involved in the maintenance and metabolic processes of living organisms.

  • Types Of Biomolecules

  • Nucleosides & Nucleotides

  • Lipids, Lignin, Amino Acids & Carbohydrates

  • Saccharides

Track 15: Structural Biology and Single Molecules

Single Molecules methods represent a truly novel approach to biochemical/biological problems. All classical structural and biochemistry/biophysics methods describe the behavior of enormous ensembles of molecules, averaging the measured parameters over the entire molecular population. How anyone molecule may behave over time cannot be revealed by such studies; neither can the behavior of individual molecules having different conformations and properties.SM methods provide the only available way to study their functional differences, by recording the behavior of individual members of a certain population of molecules. In addition, SM approaches reveal fluctuations in the observable parameters of a single molecule over time, often with very high temporal resolution, usually on the order of milliseconds.

Track 16: Structural Molecular Biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biochemistry which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, and proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

  • Molecular cloning

  • Polymerase chain reaction

  • Gel electrophoresis

  • Macromolecule blotting and probing

  • Microarrays

  • Allele-specific oligonucleotide

Market Analysis

Glance at Market of Structural Biology

The concerned region of  Structural Biology Analyzer industry market involves North American, Europe, and Asia etc., and the main countries include United States, Germany, Japan, and China etc. North America is the leading region in Structural Biology Analyzers following the European market which is the second largest market for Structural Biology Analyzers. The constant healthcare sector improvements and huge population base represented by the Asia Pacific region is expected to drive the importance in Asia Pacific Biochemistry & Structural Biology Analyzers market.

The Structural Biology Analyzers market offers a healthy contribution to the In-Vitro Diagnostic market and is expected to grow in the upcoming years. The global market for in vitro diagnostics (IVD) products was $60.3 billion in 2015 and expected to be $81.1 billion by 2020 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 6.1%.

North America leads the global IVD products market throughout the period, worth $24.6 billion in 2014. The market is expected to reach $29.4 billion in 2020 from $25.3 billion in 2015 increasing at a CAGR of 3.1%. Asia is the fastest growing region of global IVD market with a CAGR of 12.9% from 2015 to 2020. The market is worth $15.3 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $28.2 billion by 2020.

Major Structural Biology Related Associations around the Globe:

  • American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • Czech Society for Structural Biology
  • Biophysical Society
  • American Chemical Society
  • New England Structural Biology Association
  • The Protein Society
  • American Crystallographic Association
  • International Union of Crystallography
  • British Crystallographic Association
  • European Crystallographic Association
  • Hellenic Crystallographic Association
  • Bioinformatics society of India 
  • International Society for Computational Biology
  • South African Crystallographic Society
  • Australian Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
  • Australian Society for Biophysics
  • American Society for Mass Spectrometry
  • British Biophysical Society
  • Bioinformatics Italian Society
  • Mid-South Computational Biology and Bioinformatics Society

Major Structural Biology Related Research Units :

  • Structural Biology Group, RIKEN
  • OKINAWA Institute of Science and Technology
  • Markey Center for Structural Biology
  • New York Structural Biology Center
  • Department of Anatomy and Structural Biology, Einstein College
  • Department of Structural and Cellular Biology - Tulane University
  • Structural Biology — Penn State University
  • Chemical and Structural Biology – The Rockfeller University
  • Center for Structural Biology - University of Illinois at Chicago
  • Structural Biology Facility - Robert H. Lurie Comprehensive Cancer Center of Northwestern University
  • Department of Cellular and Structural Biology – UT Health Science Center
  • UCSF Macromolecular Structure Group
  • Structural Biology NMR Facility - University of Minnesota

Past Conference Report

Structural Biology 2017

The 9th International Conference on Structural Biology was held on September 18-20, 2017 in Zurich, Switzerland with the presence of professional researchers, scientists involved in the development of high-quality education in all aspects.

Structural Biology 2017 witnessed an amalgamation of peerless speakers who enlightened the crowd with their knowledge and confabulated on various new-fangled topics related to the field of structural biology and biophysics. The highly exalted conference hosted by Conference Series was marked with the attendance of renowned and brilliant researchers, business delegates and talented student communities representing more than 20 countries around the world. The conference has tried grounding every aspect related to Structural Biology and Biophysics, covering all the possible research areas and crux. 

The conference aimed a parallel rail with the theme “Let's Gear the Future with Structural Biology’’. The meeting engrossed a vicinity of cognizant discussions on novel subjects like 3-D Structure Determination, Computational Approaches in Structural Biology, Hybrid Approaches for Structure Prediction, Structural Biology and Single Molecules, Structural Bioinformatics and Proteomics, Structural Molecular Biology, Structural Virology, Sequencing, Signalling Biology, Molecular Modeling and Dynamics, Drug Designing, Frontiers in Structural Biology, Structural Biology Complexity Arenas and Recent Advances in Structural Biology. The three days event implanted a firm relation of upcoming strategies in the field of Structural Biology with the scientific community. The conceptual and applicable knowledge shared, will also foster organizational collaborations to nurture scientific accelerations.

 

New Updates: About Structural Biology

New compound helps activate cancer-fighting T cells

Scientific studies have identified new mechanism which is responsible for improving our immune system’s activity as it offers new approaches for cancer treatment & vaccination. Chemists have developed a new lipid antigen; stimulating disease fighting T-cells of the immune system as they create a new path for development of better cancer therapy drugs & vaccines.

According to the studies, the invariant natural killer T-cells(iNKT) acts as weapon on which our immune system relies to fight against infection and combat diseases like sclerosis, cancer, etc.  There are several compounds that show stimulation of iNKT cells in mice but this activity is limited towards human iNKT.

The new compound named AH10-7  had shown similar properties that had been searched by researchers. This compound is the modified version of synthesized ligand which is effective in activating the human iNKT cells. It is selective as it encourages iNKT cells to release a specific set of proteins i.e Th1 cytokines which is responsible for stimulating he anti-tumor immunity. This study had involved advanced structural and 3-D computer modelling.

A crystallized form of the molecular complex was exposed to high-intensity X-ray beam due to which a detailed 3-D image was obtained showing the interaction between killer T-cell receptor and AH10-7.The natural and synthetic form of glycolipid ligands known as alpha-galactosylceramides were potent activators of iNKT cells which showed positive response in fighting cancer and other diseases.These ligands serve as tiny dockmasters in our immune system, helping antigen-presenting cells attract and bind with iNKT cells so they can be activated to kill cancerous cells or fight off pathogens and other foreign invaders.

Two significant modifications to ligand were made. It was found that adding a hydrocinnamoyl ester on to the sugar stabilized the ligand was kept close to the surface of the antigen-presenting cell, thereby enhancing its ability to dock with and stimulate human iNKT cells. 

Molecular details of protein crystal nucleation uncovered

Protein crystal nucleation is a process with great medical & scientific relevance. The protein crystal had been essential for structural biologists to predict the 3-D structure of protein besides this they are also used as bio-pharmaceutical delivery agents. Due to their long shelf life, low viscosity & slow dissolution rate, the crystal suspensions show attraction to store & administer the active pharmaceutical compounds

Despite their tremendous potential, there are two factors that limit the use of protein crystals in a broad range of applications.

First, growing protein crystals for many proteins, crystallization can be very difficult. This is the reason why scientists don't understand the early stages of protein crystal formation. The crystal originates from a nucleus which is a tiny crystalline form to form a spontaneous grouping of molecules in solution to form 3-D structure.

Secondly, a single protein can crystallize in multiple different crystal forms i.e polymorphism due to which different crystal polymorphs show different characteristics.  Till yet it is very difficult to know the crystallization process to the polymorph of one's liking.

The scientist had used cryo-transmission electron microscopy (Cryo-TEM) to capture the origin of a protein crystal by visualizing the process of nucleation at molecular resolution. Then the images obtained for the sample at specific time interval were observed to know the molecular collision that leads to crystalline nucleus formation. Later, it was observed that the protein had a hierarchical self-assembly process. It was then compared with the nucleation pathways of multiple polymorphs and analyzed the difference in structure which was  achieved by gently tweaking the different modes of interaction that exist between the molecules, steering the nucleation process

This new insights and methodology will significantly advance the development of protein crystals for 3D structure determination and medical applications.

Artificial cellular signaling models

For cells to perceive its environment & respond accordingly Signaling systems are required so that homeostasis & proper development occurs. Errors in these systems result in many diseases including cancer & diabetes emerging the need for many powerful tools to know the study for development of therapies.

Traditionally, to study cellular signaling pathways biochemical & molecular biology methods were used focusing on individual pathway components. With advancement in technologies like genomics & proteomics, biology has facilitated more comprehensive view for signaling.

To know about the molecular machines involved in signaling cascades, a detailed view of their architecture and interactions is required. Often, the low endogenous abundance or tissue heterogeneity of certain proteins obstruct their extraction, purification and structure prediction for which Scientists often make choices to recombinant production and purification in heterologous host cell systems.

Mostly medicines marketed by the pharmaceutical industry are targetting signaling cascades to treat diseases. The EU-funded SynSignal consortium observed that novel tools are needed to study signaling systems relying on synthetics biology techniques to overcome certain product development challenges. Synthetic cellular signaling circuits are recognized as being analogous to electronic circuits. They designed individual signal building block, assembling them in-vitro to produce synthetic cascades that resemble the natural process.

A DNA sequence of defined structure and function encodes the individual component of the circuit which is physically interchangeable with compatible modular building blocks. It was focused that activation of G-protein-coupled receptors initiates signaling. These pathways also served as a screening platform for new medicines to treat diseases.

Cryo-electron microscopy reveals the structure of a herpesvirus capsid

The reconstruction of the 3.1 Å structure of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) B-capsid & building the atomic model has helped researchers to understand the assembly mechanism of the capsid. This virus is the most complex virus genetically as well as structurally & hence it spread within the host population efficiently causing a wide range of diseases in humans.

 In the assembly pathway of these viruses; three distinct types of capsid are produced namely A-, B-, C- capsid respectively having mature angular shells with similar assembly mechanism. Merging “block-based” reconstruction with accurate Ewald sphere corrections helped to reconstruct 3.1 Å structure of the herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) B-capsid. Among the four layers, the capsid of the virus not only protects the genome from damage but also functions to release it into the host cell nucleus during an early stage of infection & during maturation for packaging of a genome.

It was found that there are four major conformers of capsid protein VP5 exhibiting the difference in configuration and mode of the assembly to form intermolecular networks. Triplex is a heterotrimeric assembly cementing the capsid together; consisting two copies of VP23 & one copy of VP19C. VP26 is a small capsid protein & its 6 copies form a ring-like structure on the top of the hexon; stabilizing the capsid.

Based on the capsid structure, a model was proposed for assembly of the capsid utilizing a triplex leading to the twofold symmetry confirmation on clustering the basic assembly units into a higher-order structure. The nascent assembly intermediates are guided into the correct T = 16 geometry, leading the first step towards understanding the drivers of assembly & the basis of the stability of the capsid.

The 'radical' ways sunlight builds bigger molecules in the atmosphere

With the approach of summer, "sea and sun" might conjure up images of a beach trip. But for scientists, the interactions of the two have big implications for the climate and for the formation of tiny droplets, or aerosols that lead to clouds.  The molecules at the ocean surface activate other molecules as an effect of sunlight which results in larger molecules and may affect the atmosphere.

These organic molecules start reacting as they get activated on absorbing sunlight and undergo through reactive intermediate known as “radical” which initiates a chain reaction forming more complex chemicals. The pathway of this "radical initiator" is important to understand which molecules at the sea surface end up in the atmosphere. The molecules which are found in the atmosphere on aerosols determine whether they will absorb or reflect sunlight thus affecting the temperature of the earth. Till now much of the focus was on the hydroxyl radical which efficiently reacts in the atmosphere. It is proposed that a class of compounds; α-keto acids gets photo-activated by sunlight and drives reactions with molecules that do not absorb sunlight themselves.

The two different α-keto acids were studied which showed that light caused the acid to react with several fatty acids and alcohols. Mostly these molecules are found near the ocean's surface and are ubiquitous in biology. It was explained that this sunlight-initiated chemistry has the capability to change the composition of the sea surface. The new and larger molecules formed may add to aerosols hence changing their properties and leading to interesting and previously unforeseen consequences to human health, visibility and climate.

To Collaborate Scientific Professionals around the World

Conference Date October 18-19, 2018

Speaker Opportunity

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Journal of Proteomics & Bioinformatics Biology and Medicine Metabolomics:Open Access Biochemistry & Molecular Biology Journal

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Keytopics

  • Actin
  • Amphipathic Compound
  • Annotated Genome
  • Apoenzyme
  • Apoptosis
  • Aromatic Compound
  • ATP Production
  • Binding Energy
  • Bioenergetics
  • Biopolymers
  • Biosignalling
  • Buffer & Its Mechanism
  • Catalyst
  • Cell Division
  • Cell Therapy
  • Central Dogma
  • Chromatin
  • Chromosome
  • Cloning
  • Cofactor
  • Colligative Properties
  • De Novo Pathway
  • Deamination
  • Denaturation
  • Dissociation Constant
  • DNA
  • DNA Isolation
  • DNA Methylation
  • DNA Polymeras
  • Docking
  • ELISA
  • Enantiomers
  • Endothermics Reaction
  • Enthalpy
  • Entropy
  • Enzymes
  • Exothermics Reaction
  • Fatty Acids
  • Feedback Inhibition
  • Fischer Projection Formula
  • Formation & Utilization Of Ketone Bodies
  • Gene Splicing
  • Genes
  • Gibbs Free Energy
  • Gluconeogenesis
  • Glucose- Alanine Cycle
  • Glycobiology
  • Glycolysis
  • Henderson Hasselbalch Equation
  • Histone Modification
  • Homeostasis
  • Homologs
  • Homology Modeling
  • Immobilization
  • Isoelectric Focusing
  • Ketone Bodies
  • Ligand
  • Lineweaver-Burk Eqaution
  • Micelles
  • Michaelis-Menten Equation
  • Motif
  • Mutagenesis
  • Mutation
  • Myosin
  • Nanopolymers
  • Non-covalent Interactions
  • Orthologs
  • Osmosis
  • Paralogs
  • Pathogen & Viruses
  • Pentose Phosphate Pathway
  • Phagocytosis
  • Phosphorylation
  • Photorespiration
  • Plasmid
  • Promoters
  • Proteome
  • Purines & Pyrimidines
  • PYMOL
  • Ramachandren Plot
  • Replication
  • Ribozymes
  • RNA Metabolism
  • Salvage Pathway
  • Single Cell Protein
  • Stem Cells
  • Stereo Isomers
  • Structural Enzymology
  • Structural Pathology
  • Structural Plasticity
  • TCA Cycle
  • Toxicology
  • Transamination
  • Transcription
  • Transition State Of Energy
  • Translation
  • Urea Cycle
  • Virtual Screening
  • Zwitter Ions